What are nootropics? 0 70324

Nootropics, according to Corneliu E. Giurgea, the father of nootropics, are drugs that simultaneously enhance learning and memory, protect the brain, increase the efficacy of brain-related control mechanisms, should lack the pharmacologic structure of psychotropic drugs, and be devoid of side effects. Over time, the description has been expanded to include other non-drug substances.

Whether or not drugs are involved, the idea of nootropics is that they boost mental capacity, allowing you to accomplish goals that would be quite strenuous without them. They are used by various individuals, ranging from students wanting to get more studying done or turning in a paper on time, to engineers trying to figure out a problem.

What are nootropics made of?

Nootropics are traditionally made of naturally-occurring substances like ginseng, or synthetic substances in the form of chemicals not uncommon in drugs (like L-Theanine). Even though Corneliu Giurgea’s description referred to drugs, nootropics have evolved to include non-synthetic substances that can give similar outputs. Nootropics are sometimes called “smart drugs”.

Various nootropics

The large range of nootropics make it difficult to describe them with a blanket sentence other than “they boost brain performance”. So, instead of a generalization, here is a short list of popular nootropics, as well as their specific actions, and possible side effects.

1. Caffeine: Caffeine is without-a-doubt the most popular nootropic, being present in most nootropic substances available on the market. It’s effective in wakefulness, improved concentration, increased motivation, alertness, and focus.

The side effects of caffeine are as well-known as its usefulness. Excessive consumption of caffeine causes insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, tachycardia (elevated heart rate), and even muscle tremors.

2. L-Theanine: Unlike Guarana, L-Theanine is an amino acid that can be found in many tea leaves and herbs. It’s known to aid stress relief and reduce anxiety. Even though is also taken to increase focus and attention, stress relief is its most evidence-based function.

Its side effects may include nausea and irritability.

3. CPD Choline: CPD Choline is naturally-occurring in humans and animals and is an intermediate substance in a common biochemical process that involves converting Choline to Phosphaatidylcholine. Studies show that CPD protects the brain, especially in times of low oxygen supply. In addition, it also increases alertness and consciousness.

Being a natural substance in the body, CPD has no negative effects, except when it is taken in excess, where it can cause stomachaches and diarrhea.

4. Modafinil: As far as performance-boosting drugs go, Modafinil tops the list, having been shown to increase fatigue resistance, improve mood, as well as increase motivation and vigilance. It really is a wonder drug, often rumored to be used by sleep-deprived doctors.

Its side effects are abuse-induced, which means you may suffer things like chronic headaches, if you use it all the time to fight fatigue, without getting enough sleep.

5. Guarana: Guarana, also called Guaranine, is a plant with well-researched and documented effects of improved mental focus and alertness. It is also taken for various other purposes from weight loss to exercise tolerance, but these have not been proven.

Being a naturally-occurring fruit, it does not have severe side effects. However, users have been known to experience insomnia and fatigue when taken in high doses.

6. Panax Ginseng: Certain herbs are sometimes assumed to have positive, even performance-enhancing effects. One of the most popular is Ginseng. Common in East Asia and North America, the plant does not have any nootropic effects backed by strong scientific evidence. However, it has been said to increase energy levels and activity.

Ginseng does not have any known side effects.

7.Ginkgo Biloba: Also a leaf extract, it is wildly known as a cognitive enhancer, with weak scientific evidence to support it.

8. Vitamin B12: The controversy surrounding vitamin B12 is that it may not be a nootropic, as it does not have any noticeable, quick-onset effects. It is considered more of supplement and nutritional requirement than a nootropic. However, it’s on this list because some people still consider it a smart drug.

Nootropic tolerance

Overuse of many nootropics can lead to your body building tolerance, and needing more and more of the substance to get the same effect. It’s a little like what happens with regular alcohol drinkers. They often need more and more alcohol to feel its effects.

Things to remember about nootropics

Many individuals have their definition of nootropics, thus making it a controversial topic. The situation is made worse by substances that are claimed to boost productivity but have not yet been proven. Amongst all these controversies, here are some points for you to keep in mind about nootropics:

  1. They are performance-boosting substances and are often used to get an extra edge.
  2. They should be free of side effects, and should have low toxicity.
  3. They contain naturally-occurring substances.
  4. They work by interacting with receptors in the brain.
  5. Even though they are supposed to be side effect free, some supposed nootropics do have side effects.
  6. Some substances considered nootropics work, and some don’t.
  7. The adverse effects of nootropics can sometimes be avoided by keeping dosage low and cycling between usage and abstinence.
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Sex positions you should definitely try 0 63355

Well, I can’t speak for everyone, but I definitely speak for most when I say that sex is a sensitive subject regardless of whom you’re doing it with. Having sex with just one person can get boring eventually, the initial fire gradually dies down and sex starts becoming a chore. When this happens, you need something to breathe life back into your relationship. This means exploring and trying out new things in the bedroom. Relax, I don’t mean buying a gallon of lube or buying the Kamasutra, nothing that adventurous… yet. When I mean explore, I mean trying new sex positions.

This might sound crazy, but I’m telling you, a little pleasure doesn’t hurt anybody. Exploring is not for everybody and that’s ok. Some people aren’t wired that way, however, if you want that spark back then you should definitely try some of these sex positions.

The bridge

A true sex position from the pages of the Kamasutra. It requires lying down from the ground and pushing your torso up from the ground and holding it at the level where he can penetrate. This position requires a lot of flexibility and strength, so don’t be bummed out if you and your partner can only maintain the bridge for a couple of seconds. This move is one of the more adventurous moves, and it gives you an excuse to show him how athletic you are.

The piledriver

This sex position sounds and looks painful doesn’t it? Sounds like a pro-wrestling move or something. Well, it’s the exact opposite. This position eliminates all the space between you two and ensures maximum penetration. Don’t worry, it’s not as boring as it sounds. Believe me, you’re in for a roller coaster. This position, much like the first one, requires a degree of flexibility on both parts. But unlike the first one, it doesn’t require a lot strength. This position is a bit on the wild side, so I would recommend you pace yourself.

High knee

The high knee is a simple, yet exciting sex position. You’ll feel kind of silly that you didn’t think of it before. It involves you and your partner getting on your knees in a comfortable position. You both lift a knee so that his left knee is raised while your right is raised. Then you just both go to town on each other. The high knee is best when done on a bed. You don’t want your knees to get tired or bruised mid-sex. 

X marks the spot

This position starts out by laying back on a horizontal surface, then he penetrates from the vagina. It’s called X marks the spot because the legs are crossed as he penetrates. This position can be done on virtually any surface. The bed, table, countertop, take your pick. 

The high chair position

This position is my favorite on this list. You just get to sit down and let him pound. This position is fantastic through the vagina and even better with anal. The angle of this position facilitates the perfect entry. It’s unlike a lot of generic positions will get you there.

Reverse cowgirl

This is a treat for the guy; the reverse cowgirl is just the cowgirl in reverse. Instead of looking into his eyes as you ride him, he will be staring at your ass while you rock him. The best thing about cowgirl positions is the control it brings. These kinds of positions allow you to control the depth and speed. Something that makes the experience totally different.

Woman lying on top

This position holds a special place in my heart. I like to sometimes call it the ‘inverted doggy-style.’ It involves the man lying under and you laying on him as he keeps your thighs closed and trust upward. You should try to keep your legs together throughout. This tightness puts extra pressure on the clitoris and that’s where you want all the extra friction to go.

Doggy-style oral

No traverse into the unknown is complete without covering all the bases. Oral sex is what lays the groundwork for a proper orgasm and it’s the most important part of foreplay, but enough of that… let’s describe the position. You start off by getting in the doggy-style position and then you let him go down on you from that angle.

These positions are a combination of weird, flexible, and unconventional. They are bound to put the spark back in your relationship. You don’t necessarily need to have a slow sex life with your partner to try this out, you can even try them out just cause you want to. These positions don’t even begin to scratch the surface of great sexual positions, there are numerous others out there and I suggest you go go after it.

Three things you should probably stop doing 0 49338

These days it seems like everything is bad for you. There’s proof that everything you do right from the moment you wake up till you fall asleep at night is killing you just a little bit. With these kinds of habits in the way, it’s difficult to spot those habits that are more life-threatening. Since all these little habits are risky one way or the other, how are we supposed to spot the ones that are truly detrimental? For example, it’s been proven that bathing too much is bad for you.

Apparently, constant scrubbing of the skin can cause it to erode, leaving the skin susceptible to diseases and infections. Even brushing your teeth too hard after you eat is bad for you. So it’s practically impossible to go through life without adopting one or two “bad habits.” On the bright side, most of these habits are just barely life-threatening, most of them don’t even pose a threat at all. Like boredom, for example, is capable of actually killing you.

Scientists believe that while boring jobs are easier than more tasking jobs, they can also be more deadly. Boring jobs can be deadly because they don’t require your heart rate going up (which, if experienced enough, can also kill you), therefore people with sedentary jobs tend not to be accustomed to jolts and are less likely to survive heart attacks. That sounds super serious… but if you break it down you’ll find that heart attacks are caused by poor lifestyle choices, unhealthy eating habits, and inactivity. The probability of that scenario occurring is probably one in a million. So it’s seriously not an issue for those pursuing healthy lifestyles, eating habits, and are active for at least an hour each day. However, there are some habits that are more destructive than others. They may appear innocent or fun, but are actually doing a number on your lifespan.

Biting your nails

This habit is probably one of the most dangerous habits out there, and yet many people don’t know this. Biting your nails when you get nervous, or just for fun, can be dangerous. Not only is it a disgusting habit, it can get you seriously ill.

Nails are a breading ground for germs and bacteria, and millions of them get stuck under your nails throughout the course of the day. That’s why it’s important to always wash your hands whenever you get the chance.

There are a lot of dangerous bacteria out there that can get you sick or worse. One of that bacterium is E-Coli. What is E-Coli? That’s a good question. Although it sounds like a manufactured bacterium, it’s actually a mostly harmless bacterium that can be found in the stomach of healthy people. However, a more deadly strain exists that can be passed around easily. It can be passed around from water-to-skin contact to meat, especially meat. The E-Coli 0157:H7 is a harmful strain of the bacterium that can cause bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and severe cramps to those who get infected. In older people, it’s been known to cause terminal kidney diseases and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. That sounds pretty bad doesn’t it? Doctors say the majority of E-Coli infections come from dirty hands – mainly fingernails.

Messing with your internal clock

If you like staying up all night binge watching the latest shows on Netflix you are probably messing up your internal clock. It’s called the “Circadian Clock” and it tells your body when to sleep and when to be awake. In plain terms, it controls your sleep cycle.

When you stay up too late, you can really mess up your internal clock. Aside from the activities of the day that won’t let you get those precious eight hours of sleep, our bodies aren’t built to sleep in the day and be awake at night. Our internal clock tells our body when it needs to be awake, asleep, and messing with it is asking for trouble. It can cause issues like drowsiness, tiredness, poor judgement, inefficiency, etc. Sure these issues can be solved by a little jolt of coffee but aside from that we have more serious consequences that cannot be solved by just getting back in sync or a grabbing a cup of coffee. Blue light can also do a serious number on your health. Blue light is a particular type of light that typically comes from the sun, artificial light sources, and it prevents the production of melatonin which tells your body to sleep. If you’re trying to catch up on some sleep during the day you’ll probably not get enough, and lack of sleep has been known to cause insomnia and more life-threatening conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Not sleeping enough can actually kill people, so make sure you knock back at least eight hours of sleep per day.

Mixing pills and booze

It’s a generally good rule of thumb that you shouldn’t mix alcohol and pills, but many people don’t know the full story when it comes to pain killers, alcohol, and the repercussions of mixing them. When alcohol and pain killers are consumed in large quantities (or just consumed together) it can result in a synergetic effect that you don’t want going down in your body. Both alcohol and pills have the same effect on the brain. Mixing the two is just begging for trouble as it leads to this synergetic, exponential effect that can lead to an accidental overdose or some other life-threatening condition like brain, liver, or gastrointestinal damage. So, next time you’re thinking of mixing the two together, just think that it may lead to some serious damage or death. Other effects are over-sedation and the individual effects of drinking alcohol and recreational use of painkillers. Some of the consequences of the excess intake of alcohol include over-sedation, liver damage, and in some cases heart diseases, impaired judgement, etc. While for pain killers we have risks of overdose, organ damage, and dizziness, etc. The point is that these two things shouldn’t be mixed together, they are dangerous on their own, and should not be mixed whether deliberately or by accident. It doesn’t matter whether it’s a little whisky to wash down the occasional aspirin, or you’re at a party and “everybody is doing it,” you shouldn’t ever mix the two.

Most things out there are probably harmful in one way or another, but these habits are especially bad because they have such a huge health impact on an individual’s lifespan and quality of life. They should be avoided if at all possible. Of course, there are other life-shortening habits out like overeating or bad hygiene, but these take the lead because they are generally considered as normal and yet they have major consequences. Don’t mix booze and pills, and don’t stay up all night; remember to always wash your hands, and don’t bite your nails. If you avoid these habits those are three things that you’ll never have to worry about.

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